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虚拟语气,一种对非现实的表达!

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发表于 2016-4-24 16:40:44 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
虚拟语气
什么是虚拟语气?是的,我们要学习虚拟语气就必须先弄明白它的概念。

虚拟语气包含两种:一种指与事实相反或不可能发生。“虚拟条件句+虚拟主句”的结构都属于这一类;even if、even though、as if、as though引导的状语中如果需要用到虚拟语气也属于这一类;wish、would rather后面接的宾语从句表示不可能实现的愿望,还是属于这一类。

另一种指与事实实际是否发生没有直接关系。如和suggest、order、demand等表示建议、命令、要求等相关的名词性从句都属于这一类。

大家知道以上两类虚拟语气后,我们就从从句的角度来系统学习虚拟语气。紧跟小简老师的步伐哦!


一. 虚拟条件句中的虚拟语气

1、表示与现在事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+did(be动词用were)
主句:主语+ should/would/might/could+do

If I were you,I would take an umbrella.
如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你)

If I knew his telephone number,I would tell you.
如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道)

If there were no air or water,there would be no living things on the earth.
如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水)

2、表示与过去事实相反的情况

从句:If+主语+had+done
主句:主语+should/would/might/could+have done

If I had got there earlier,I should/would have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了)

If he had taken my advice,he would not have made such a mistake.
如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。(事实:没有听我的话)

3、表示与将来事实相反的情况

从句:①if+主语+were to do
②if+主语+should+do
③if+主语+过去式(be动词用were)
主句:主语+should/would/might/could+do

If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him.
如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:不可能来)

If there were a heavy snow next Sunday,we would go skating.
如果下周日下大雪,我们就去滑冰。(事实:不可能下雪)

If she were to be here next Monday,I would tell her about the matter.
如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。(事实:不可能来)

注意事项:

① 错综时间句:
即虚拟条件状语从句与虚拟主句中谓语动作的时间不一致。

If I had worked hard at school,I would be an engineer,too.
如果我在学校学习刻苦的话,我现在也会成为一个工程师了。

If they had informed us,we would not come here now.
如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现在就不会来这里了。

If he knew her,he would have greeted her that day.
如果他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。

② 虚拟条件句中的省略:
当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were,should,had 时,if 可以省略,这时条件从句要用倒装语序,即把were,should,had等词置于句首,这种多用于书面语。

Should he agree to go there,we would send him there.
要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去了。

Were she here,she would agree with us.
如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。

Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here.
如果他懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。

③ 用其它形式表达虚拟条件:
虚拟条件状语从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、上下文或用其它方式表示出来。如without…,but for…(要不是...)等。

But for his help,we would be working now.
要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。

Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress.
要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。

We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him.
我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

④ 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词be的过去时态一律用were,不用was。

If I were you,I would go to look for him.
如果我是你,就会去找他。

⑤ 在虚拟条件句中,should/would/might/could四个词只能用should;在虚拟主句中,主语只有是第一人称时,才能用should。

If I had got there earlier,I should/would have met her.
如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。

If he had got there earlier, he would have met her.
如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。

二. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气

1、表达和建议、要求、命令、主张等含义相关的名词性从句,一律用主语+should+动词原形(should可以省略)结构。具体涉及到这些动词以及它们的名词形式:

一坚持(主张):insist
二命令:order,command
三要求:require,request,demand
四建议:suggest,advise,propose,recommend

例如:
It was suggested that he(should)join in the club activities.(主语从句)

I suggested that he(should)join in the club activities.(宾语从句)

My suggestion was that he(should)join in the club activities.(表语从句)

I had an suggestion that he(should)join in the club activities.(同位语从句)

这四句话表达同一个意思:我建议他加入这个俱乐部的活动。

2、表示重要性、必要性、吃惊等时,一律用it is+形容词+that+主语+should+动词原形(should可以省略)结构。

例如:
It's important that you (should) study English hard.
努力学习英语是很重要的。

It's necessary that you (should) praise your students as much as possible.
尽可能多的表扬你的学生是有必要的。

It is strange  that she (should) not have been invited.
很奇怪她竟然没有被邀请。

3. ① wish 后面所跟的宾语从句,其谓语动词用虚拟语气(意为“要是/但愿…就好了”),其形式主要有三种:

表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish+一般过去时的宾语从句

表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish+ 过去完成时的宾语从句

表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish+ would/could+动词原形

I wish it were spring all year round.
我希望一年四季都是春天。

I wish it would be fine tomorrow.
我希望明天天气好。

She wished she had stayed at home then.
她希望她当时待在家里。

if only 后接从句也用虚拟语气,其形式与wish的用法一致。

② would rather 后面所跟的宾语从句,其谓语动词用虚拟语气(意为“宁愿......”),其形式主要有两种:

表示对现在/将来情况的虚拟:wish+一般过去时的宾语从句

表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish+ 过去完成时的宾语从句
三. 其它从句中的虚拟语气

1、虚拟语气用在状语从句中

① 由as if 或 as though 所引导的方式状浯从句,若从句与事实相反,则要用虚拟语气。其形式如下:

主句+as if/ though +主语+一般过去时(从句的动作与现在事实相反)

主句+as if/ though +主语+would/could+动词原形(从句的动作与将来事实相反)

主句+as if/ though +主语+过去完成时(从句的动作与过去事实相反)

He talks as if he knew all about it.
他说起来好像知道这件事的全部一样。

She speaks English well as if she had studied in America.
她说英语很好,好像过去在美国待过一样。

He learns English so hard as if he would go abroad.
他学英语如此努力,好像他要出国一样。

② 由 even if 或 even though 所引导的让步状语从句,若从句与事实相反,则从句和主句都要用虚拟语气。其形式如下:

主句+even if/ though +主语+一般过去时(从句的动作与现在事实相反)

主句+even if/ though +主语+would/could+动词原形(从句的动作与将来事实相反)

主句+even if/ though +主语+过去完成时(从句的动作与过去事实相反)

Even if you weren't her son, she would treat you like this.
即使你不是她的儿子,她也会这样对待你的。

I would have married her even if she had been penniless.
即使她身无分文,我也会和她结婚。

2、虚拟语气用在定语从句中

在it is (high) time that…句型中也用虚拟语气,从句常用过去式,有时也用should+动词原形,表示该做而没做的事,含建议的意味。

It is time that we went home.=It is time that we should go home.
我们该回家了。

It is time we left. =It is time we should leave.
我们该走了。

It is time we summed up our results.= It is time we should sum up our results.
我们该总结我们的成绩了。

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